Electrospinning technology stands out for its simple operation, efficient production, and versatile use in creating nanofibers. These nanofibers, derived from electrospinning, possess a high specific surface area and flexibility, finding broad application in catalysts, environmental solutions, noise absorption, electronics, medical innovations, and notably, lithium-ion batteries.
Principles of Electrospinning Technology:
Utilizing a high-voltage power supply, solution storage, injection, and collection devices, electrospinning initiates a voltage difference between the solution and the collection apparatus. This voltage variance forms a Taylor cone, from which, upon exceeding a specific voltage threshold, liquid sprays out. The sprayed liquid stretches along the electric field direction, solidifying into nanofibers on the collection device. Electrospinning typically requires voltages ranging from thousands to tens of thousands.
Influential Factors in Electrospinning:
Four main categories of factors influence electrospinning technology:
- Solution Properties: Viscoelasticity, conductivity, and surface tension impact fiber size and uniformity.
- Electrospinning Parameters: Voltage, distance between components, and liquid propulsion speed.
- Environmental Parameters: Temperature, air humidity, etc.
- Collection Method: Influences fiber orientation and shape.
Applications in Lithium-Ion Batteries:
Effective cathode materials are crucial for lithium-ion batteries’ performance. Electrospinning has enabled the creation of specialized structures, such as flower-like Li1.2Ni0.17Co0.17Mn0.5O2 cathodes. These morphologies enhance lithium ion diffusion, elevating cyclic discharge capacity to 235mAh/g.
Researchers have also designed controllable V2O5 nanostructures, like porous nanotubes and nanofibers, displaying high reversible capacity and excellent performance.
To overcome the low energy utilization of carbon-based anodes, electrospinning has contributed to the development of dendritic TiO2@mesoporous carbon nanofibers (TiO2@MCNFs). These composites exhibit exceptional discharge capacity and cycling performance.
Additionally, metal oxide materials with high specific capacity, like Fe2O3, MnO, and Li4Ti5O12 nanofibers, show promise. Advanced structures such as hollow NiO nanofibers and core-shell Si/C @CNF non-woven fabrics significantly enhance anode materials’ electrochemical properties.
Electrospun nanofiber membranes have emerged as ideal separator materials due to their porous nature and large surface area. By manipulating spinning sequences, multilayer separators with superior mechanical strength and electrochemical performance are achievable.
Researchers have also developed composite membranes like lignin/polyacrylonitrile (L-PANs), exhibiting promising rate and cycle performance for lithium-ion batteries.
While electrospinning technology holds immense potential in lithium-ion batteries, challenges in mass production and precise nanostructure control remain. Despite these obstacles, it stands as a promising avenue in the pursuit of high-performance battery materials.