Overview of intelligent video surveillance

Video surveillance system development history

Video surveillance system development history

In 1951, some companies, mainly American Radio Corporation, began to develop video recorders and video tapes. In December 1953, the Pentax Roussby Institute took the lead in launching the color multi-track video tape and its playback system by using the multi-track method, but the broadcast picture was relatively blurry and could not be put into use immediately. In April 1956, the American Ampere Company took the lead in developing the world’s first practical commercial video tape recorder and named it “Ampere VRX-1000”.

In 1957, Panasonic developed the first electronic picture tube camera, and then introduced the 1-inch camera WV-010 in 1962, the three-color tube camera in 1970, the CCD color camera in 1985, and the WJ-FS50 video recorder in 1992. In 2001, the WJ-HD500 16-channel hard disk video recorder was launched. For nearly 40 years, Panasonic has been at the forefront of the security monitoring technology revolution, with super dynamic technology, automatic dark zone compensation technology, automatic rear focus adjustment technology, and lock tracking technology. , Intelligent analysis technology has led the development of the industry all the way. When it comes to video surveillance, there is another company that cannot be avoided that is Sony, and Sony’s core influence in the field of video surveillance comes from CCD.

In 1969, the Bell Telephone Research Institute in the United States invented the CCD. It is a magician who converts “light” information into “electric” information. In the Sony development team at that time, a young man named Yue Zhi Chengzhi was very interested in CCD and began his research on CCD. However, because this research is still far from commercialization, the more intelligent it becomes, the more it can only do research silently alone. In 1973, Iwama, the then-Vice President of Sony Corporation, a uniquely discerning operator discovered Ochi’s research and said with excitement: “This should be the subject of Sony’s semiconductor department! Okay, let’s do it. Cultivate this seedling!” At that time, Ochi only realized a rough “S” drawn with 64 pixels. However, Iwama put a puzzling sentence on Yue Zhi: “Use CCD to make a camera.” After that, the booming surveillance industry was born.

In November 1973, CCD finally set up a project in Sony, and established a development team centered on Yuezhi. In March 1978, Sony manufactured an integrated block that was considered “impossible” with 110,000 components on a circuit board, creating the world’s first CCD color camera. In 1985, the first 8mm camera “CCD-V8” was born. Afterwards, the development and launch of CCD were on track. Sony introduced HAD sensors in the early 1980s, ON-CHIP MICRO LENS in the late 1980s, SUPER HAD CCDs in the mid-1990s, NEW STRUCTURE CCDs in 1998, and EXVIEW HAD CCDs in 1999. CCD has also been widely used in the field of video surveillance.

CMOS image sensors and CCD image sensors appeared almost simultaneously in the 1960s. After 1990, the passive pixel CMOS image sensor entered the market as the first-generation CMOS image sensor, and then gradually became the mainstream sensor solution for cameras. This is something later.

In 1996, Axis launched the world’s first network camera. In 2008, Axis, together with Bosch and Sony, announced the establishment of ONVIF (Open Network Video Interface Forum), and jointly formulated open industry standards based on the principles of openness and openness, which promoted the development and popularization of network video surveillance systems. In October 2011, GoTV released the first video summary system; in May 2016, Jiadu Technology launched the “Video Cloud +” large application platform V1.0; in March 2018, Yuncong Technology officially released the high-performance AI camera “torch eye” smart face recognition camera.

When it comes to the development history of video surveillance, there are two other companies that have come from behind to mention, that is, China’s Hikvision and Dahua. According to the Nikkei (Chinese version: Nikkei Chinese website), the 2017 “Survey on Global Market Share of Major Goods and Services” was compiled. Among the 71 categories included in the survey, the products of Chinese companies have the largest market share in 9 categories. Among them, the number one camera, Hikvision, has a share of 31.3%, and the second number Dahua has a share of 11.8%. The two companies have a combined share of 43.1%, which means that almost half of the world’s cameras are owned by these two companies. made.

Hikvision was founded in 2001. In 2002, it released the DS-4000M video and audio compression card and DS-8000 network hard disk video recorder, which started Hikvision’s video surveillance journey. This journey lasted 16 years. After that, in 2003, the industry first implemented the H.264 algorithm on the DSP, and based on the H.264 algorithm, it was the first to launch the DS-4000H board with independent intellectual property rights and the network hard disk video recorder DS-8000M, opening a new era of H.264. In 2007, the first infrared barrel series camera was launched. With this camera, it successfully broke into the Chinese camera market and quickly became one of the mainstream infrared camera brands in the market, realizing the leap from DVR to camera. In 2009, the Public Security Industry Solutions Business Department was formally established, and the iVMS-8200 Safe City Comprehensive Application Management Platform product was released, successfully transforming from a product supplier to an overall solution provider. In 2012, the launch of the first civilian product-“Xiaoweishi” marked the beginning of the industry application of video surveillance to small and micro enterprises and home micro-video applications. In 2015, based on the concept of “Smart Security 2.0”, cross-border products represented by industrial cameras and drones were released to promote security from safety to efficiency to benefit. In 2017, Haikang released the AI ​​Cloud cloud edge integration strategy to march towards AI and promote the development of the industry.

Dahua Co., Ltd. was founded in 1993 and established a joint-stock company in 2001. In the early days, Dahua mainly produced hard disk video recorders. At that time, the DVR products on the market were all board-type, and all the core technologies depended on imports. Not only was the price high, ordinary consumers could not afford it, but also caused the long-term impact of national enterprises. suppress. In 2002, Dahua launched the industry’s first self-developed 8-channel audio and video synchronous embedded DVR, creating the first brand of embedded DVR, and making security begin to bloom everywhere. Since then, Dahua has continued to focus on video surveillance technology and has gradually grown to become the second largest company in the world in terms of camera market share. There are several important milestones in the development history of Dahua: Going overseas in 2003, launching the intelligent transportation all-in-one machine in 2007, becoming the de facto standard of China’s electronic police, focusing on image processing technology and network technology in 2008, and introducing CMOS in 2010 Technology and launched the high-definition high-power movement. In 2011, the concept of “cloud” was introduced. In 2012, HDCVI technology was adopted by the HDcctv alliance as the first international standard in China’s security industry. In 2014, the Le Orange brand was established, entered the civilian market, and established as the first in the United States. An overseas branch company, established an artificial intelligence research institute in 2016, and launched a cloud ecology and smart future strategy of “full intelligence, full computing, full perception, and full ecology”. It is expected that in the future, with video capabilities as the core and artificial intelligence as the backing, it will provide smart IoT solutions and operational services, and actively deploy smart video surveillance systems.

Intelligent video surveillance

Intelligent video surveillance

Surveillance system is called CCTV (Closed Circuit Television Surveillance System), which has slowly faded in the past 5 years, and has been gradually replaced by Video Surveillance System. With the advancement of technology, video surveillance systems have undergone significant changes. The first is the scale, ranging from dozens of cameras to hundreds, tens of thousands, and even millions of video networking applications, so there are Safe City, Skynet Project (from “Skynet recovery without leakage”), Xueliang Engineering (from “the eyes of the masses are discerning”) such a large-scale city-level video surveillance project; second is the degree of intelligence, from the initial surveillance to the motion detection alarm, then to the leftover alarm, cross-line alarm, and then to the near Two years of relatively hot face recognition, human body recognition, vehicle recognition, object feature recognition, etc.; finally, the application range of video surveillance is getting wider and wider. Video can be used for card-free parking lot access, access control, attendance, consumption, and even use In the intrusion alarm system.

The impact of artificial intelligence on video surveillance makes the system more intelligent, so it can be called an Intelligent Video Surveillance System (Intelligent Video Surveillance System). “GB/T 28181-2011 Security and protection video monitoring network system information transmission, exchange, control technical requirements” defines “Security and protection video monitoring network system (Security and protection video monitoring network system)” as “for the purpose of security precautions, Comprehensive application of video and audio monitoring, communication, computer network, system integration and other technologies, built in cities and large venues with information collection, transmission, control, display, storage, processing and other functions can realize the interconnection of different equipment and systems, An integrated network system with intercommunication and control.
“GB/T 50348-2018 Safety Protection Engineering Technical Specification” defines “Video Surveillance & Control System (VSCS, Video Surveillance & Control System)” as “electronics that uses video technology to detect and monitor fortified areas and display and record on-site images in real time. System and network.” From the definition of English, the control function has been added.

Broadly speaking, the intelligent video surveillance system also covers images (Image, for example, the bayonet system mainly uploads picture information), audio, so the intelligent video surveillance system can also be called the intelligent audio and video image surveillance system.

What is a CCTV system

What is a CCTV system

In the 1994 edition of the national standard “GB 50198 Civil CCTV System Engineering Technical Specifications”, CCTV system is defined as:
“Civilian CCTV system refers to the CCTV system used for anti-theft, disaster prevention, inquiry, visitor, monitoring, etc. in civil facilities. It is characterized by the transmission of image signals within a specific range by means of cables or optical cables to achieve long-distance surveillance. Purpose. The system format should be consistent with the general television format. Closed-circuit surveillance television should use a black and white television system; when color signals need to be observed, a color television system can be used. The system should be composed of four main parts: camera, transmission, display and control. When it is necessary to record the image of the surveillance target, a tape recording device should be installed. While monitoring the target, when the sound needs to be monitored, a sound transmission, monitoring and recording system can be configured.

In 2009, the author of this book gave a new definition:
“Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) is one of the important components of the security system. It uses cameras to transmit audio and video signals to display, control and recording equipment through transmission lines. The front-end system and the local transmission system , Local display system, local control system, remote transmission system, and remote control system. The closed-circuit monitoring television system is different from the traditional radio and television system. The traditional radio and television system is one-point transmission and multi-point reception, which is an open The CCTV system (Opened), and the CCTV system is not publicly disseminated (Closed), one point is sent and many points are received (authorization is required), although some monitoring points provide public access services. CCTV systems are often used for security Demand for specific places, such as banks, casinos, entertainment venues, factories, communities, buildings, electricity, highways, airports, or military facilities. With the maturity of technology and the reduction of equipment costs, more and more places adopt surveillance System, such as the construction of a safe city.

The closed-circuit television monitoring system has three basic functions: monitoring, recording and playback. Surveillance mainly means that you can see the real-time pictures of the scene, video recording means recording the video images that can be monitored, and playback means playing the recorded video image data. The functions of image analysis, pre-warning, and post-event prevention can also be realized through more advanced technical means. After expansion, the CCTV system can have audio functions, which can monitor, record and playback audio signals. At the same time, the CCTV system has some intrusion alarm functions. Especially with the development of video analysis technology, to some extent, cameras can replace alarms. Probe.

In fact, after nearly 60 years of development, closed-circuit television monitoring systems have made revolutionary progress from analog systems to digitization, networking, and intelligence. With the influence of cloud computing and big data technology, coupled with the empowerment of artificial intelligence (AI, Artificial Intelligence) technology, the name, definition, and content of closed-circuit television monitoring systems can no longer adapt to the development of the new era, and more advanced systems are needed. , Namely the intelligent video surveillance system.